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modm: a barebone embedded library generator

modm (pronounced like dial-up "modem") is a toolbox for building custom C++23 libraries tailored to your embedded device. modm generates startup code, HALs and their implementations, communication protocols, drivers for external devices, and BSPs in a modular, customizable process that you can fine-tune to your needs.

This project also has a forum for discussions and a technical blog to document larger design concepts.

modm is optimized for the harsh requirements of the Eurobot competition, where our robots need to run reliably and completely autonomously for the game's 100 second duration. Our robots contain a lot of different microcontrollers, some without a lot of resources, so modm needs to fulfill a diverse set of objectives, like small code size with small memory consumption, predictable program flow, extreme portability.

The library source code is licensed as MPLv2 with any external source code under compatible licenses (BSD, Apache2, MIT). So feel free to fork this project and adapt it to your needs. The only thing we ask of you is to contribute your changes back so everyone can benefit.

Please clone modm recursively, you need all the submodules:

git clone --recurse-submodules --jobs 8 https://github.com/modm-io/modm.git

Features

  • Efficient and fast object-oriented C++23 API.
  • Support for thousands of AVR and ARM Cortex-M microcontrollers from Microchip, STMicroelectronics and Raspberry Pi.
  • Build system agnostic: Choose SCons, CMake, Makefile or use your own.
  • Modular, data-driven, target-specific HAL generation using the lbuild code generator.
  • No memory allocations in HAL with very low overall RAM consumption.
  • Highly configurable modules with sensible defaults and lots of documentation.
  • Cross-platform peripheral interfaces incl. bit banging:
    • GPIO, External Interrupt and IO expanders.
    • ADC, DAC and Comparators.
    • UART, I2C, SPI, CAN and Ethernet.
  • Interfaces and drivers for many external I2C and SPI sensors and devices.
  • Debug/logging system with IOStream and printf interface.
  • Cooperative, stackless protothreads and resumable functions.
  • Cooperative, stackful fibers and scheduler.
  • Functional (partial) libstdc++ implementation for AVRs.
  • Useful filter, interpolation and geometric algorithms.
  • Lightweight unit testing system (suitable for AVRs).
  • Hundreds of tests to ensure correct functionality.
  • Integration of useful third-party software:

Microcontrollers

modm can create a HAL for 3734 devices of these vendors:

  • STMicroelectronics STM32: 2929 devices.
  • Microchip SAM: 416 devices.
  • Microchip AVR: 388 devices.
  • Raspberry Pi: 1 device.

Here is a table with all device families and the peripheral drivers they support:

  • ✅ Implemented as a software driver in modm.
  • ○ Available in hardware but missing a software driver in modm.
  • ✕ Unavailable in hardware or device with that peripheral not supported by modm.

Note that this is a summary overview and your specific device may not have all the peripherals in this table. Please discover modm's peripheral drivers for your specific device.

STM32 SAM RP AT
Peripheral F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F7 G0 G4 H7 L0 L1 L4 L5 U5 D1x
D2x
DAx
D5x
E5x
E7x
S7x
V7x
G5x 20 90 Mega Tiny
ADC
CAN
Comparator
DAC
DMA
Ethernet
External Interrupt
External Memory
GPIO
I2C
Internal Flash
IWDG
Random Generator
SPI
System Clock
Timer
UART
Unique ID
USB

We are only a small team of developers and are limited in the amount of devices we can support and test in hardware. Open a discussion to ask if your specific device is supported out-of-the-box and how you can add it otherwise.

Boards

We have out-of-box support for many development boards including documentation.

AL-AVREB-CAN Arduino NANO Arduino UNO Black Pill F103
Black Pill F401 Black Pill F411 Blue Pill F103 DEVEBOX-STM32F4XX
DEVEBOX-STM32H750VB DISCO-F051R8 DISCO-F072RB DISCO-F100RB
DISCO-F303VC DISCO-F401VC DISCO-F407VG DISCO-F411VE
DISCO-F429ZI DISCO-F469NI DISCO-F746NG DISCO-F769NI
DISCO-L152RC DISCO-L476VG FEATHER-M0 FEATHER-M4
FEATHER-RP2040 MEGA-2560-PRO NUCLEO-F031K6 NUCLEO-F042K6
NUCLEO-F072RB NUCLEO-F091RC NUCLEO-F103RB NUCLEO-F303K8
NUCLEO-F303RE NUCLEO-F334R8 NUCLEO-F401RE NUCLEO-F411RE
NUCLEO-F429ZI NUCLEO-F439ZI NUCLEO-F446RE NUCLEO-F446ZE
NUCLEO-F746ZG NUCLEO-F767ZI NUCLEO-G070RB NUCLEO-G071RB
NUCLEO-G431KB NUCLEO-G431RB NUCLEO-G474RE NUCLEO-H723ZG
NUCLEO-H743ZI NUCLEO-L031K6 NUCLEO-L053R8 NUCLEO-L152RE
NUCLEO-L432KC NUCLEO-L452RE NUCLEO-L476RG NUCLEO-L496ZG-P
NUCLEO-L552ZE-Q NUCLEO-U575ZI-Q OLIMEXINO-STM32 Raspberry Pi Pico
SAMD21-MINI SAMD21-XPLAINED-PRO SAME54-XPLAINED-PRO SAME70-XPLAINED
SAMG55-XPLAINED-PRO SAMV71-XPLAINED-ULTRA Smart Response XE STM32-F4VE
STM32F030-DEMO THINGPLUS-RP2040

Drivers

We also have a number of completely target-independent drivers for external devices connected via I2C, SPI, UART, BitBang, etc. Most of these also give you access to the entire device so you can easily configure them for your specific needs.

AD7280A AD7928 ADIS16470 ADNS9800 ADS101X ADS7828
ADS7843 ADS816x AMS5915 APA102 AS5047 AS5600
AT24MAC402 SPI Flash BME280 BMI088 BMP085 BNO055
CAT24AA CYCLE-COUNTER DRV832X DS1302 DS1631 DS18B20
EA-DOG Encoder Input Encoder Input BitBang Encoder Output BitBang FT245 FT6x06
Gpio Sampler HCLAx HD44780 HMC58x HMC6343 HX711
I2C-EEPROM ILI9341 IS31FL3733 ITG3200 IXM42XXX L3GD20
LAN8720A LAWICEL LIS302DL LIS3DSH LIS3MDL LM75
LP503x LSM303A LSM6DS33 LSM6DSO LTC2984 MAX31855
MAX31865 MAX6966 MAX7219 MCP23x17 MCP2515 MCP3008
MCP7941x MCP990X MMC5603 MS5611 MS5837 NOKIA5110
NRF24 TFT-DISPLAY PAT9125EL PCA8574 PCA9535 PCA9548A
PCA9685 QMC5883L SH1106 SIEMENS-S65 SIEMENS-S75 SK6812
SK9822 SSD1306 ST7586S ST7789 STTS22H STUSB4500
SX1276 SX128X TCS3414 TCS3472 TLC594x TMP102
TMP12x TMP175 TOUCH2046 VL53L0 VL6180 WS2812

Examples

We have a huge number of examples which are always up-to-date and compilable as enforced by our CI.

AVR: 1-wire/ds18b20 AVR: adc/basic
AVR: adc/oversample AVR: app_can2usb
AVR: assert AVR: block_device_mirror
AVR: can/mcp2515 AVR: can/mcp2515_uart
AVR: display/dogm128/benchmark AVR: display/dogm128/caged_ball
AVR: display/dogm128/draw AVR: display/dogm128/image
AVR: display/dogm128/text AVR: display/dogm128/touch
AVR: display/dogm132 AVR: display/dogm163
AVR: display/hd44780 AVR: display/siemens_s65
AVR: fiber AVR: flash
AVR: gpio/basic AVR: gpio/blinking
AVR: gpio/button_group AVR: logger
AVR: mega_pro AVR: ports
AVR: protothread AVR: pwm/pca9685
AVR: qmc5883l AVR: sab/master
AVR: sab/slave AVR: timeout
AVR: timer AVR: uart/basic
AVR: uart/extended AVR: xpcc/receiver
AVR: xpcc/sender Arduino NANO: color
Arduino NANO: encoder_input_bitbang Arduino NANO: printf
Arduino UNO: basic/analog_read_serial Arduino UNO: basic/blink
Arduino UNO: basic/digital_read_serial Arduino UNO: basic/read_analog_voltage
Black Pill F103: blink Black Pill F401: blink
Black Pill F401: uart_freertos Black Pill F411: blink
Black Pill F411: usbfatfs Blue Pill F103: adns_9800
Blue Pill F103: blink Blue Pill F103: can
Blue Pill F103: encoder_input Blue Pill F103: encoder_input_bitbang
Blue Pill F103: environment Blue Pill F103: flash
Blue Pill F103: graphics Blue Pill F103: itm
Blue Pill F103: logger Blue Pill F103: rtt
Blue Pill F103: servo_pwm Blue Pill F103: tlc594x
Blue Pill F103: weight_scale_hx711 FEATHER-M4: blink
FEATHER-M4: neopixel FEATHER-M4: usbserial
FEATHER-RP2040: blink Generic: blinky
Generic: delay Generic: etl
Generic: fiber Generic: i2c_multiplex
Generic: resumable Generic: ros/can_bridge
Generic: ros/environment Generic: ros/sub_pub
Generic: rtc_ds1302 Generic: usb
Linux: assert Linux: block_device/file
Linux: block_device/mirror Linux: block_device/ram
Linux: build_info Linux: can_debugger
Linux: etl Linux: fiber
Linux: git Linux: logger
Linux: printf Linux: serial_interface
Linux: static_serial_interface Linux: threads
NUCLEO-F031K6: blink NUCLEO-F031K6: sk6812
NUCLEO-F042K6: adc NUCLEO-F042K6: blink
NUCLEO-F042K6: lis3mdl NUCLEO-F042K6: lp503x
NUCLEO-F042K6: lsm6ds33 NUCLEO-F042K6: ms5837
NUCLEO-F042K6: spi_dma NUCLEO-F042K6: tmp12x
NUCLEO-F042K6: vector_table_ram NUCLEO-F072RB: blink
NUCLEO-F072RB: iwdg NUCLEO-F091RC: blink
NUCLEO-F103RB: blink NUCLEO-F103RB: hard_fault
NUCLEO-F103RB: itm NUCLEO-F103RB: rtos
NUCLEO-F103RB: stts22h NUCLEO-F103RB: undefined_irq
NUCLEO-F303K8: blink NUCLEO-F303K8: rtos
NUCLEO-F303RE: blink NUCLEO-F303RE: itm
NUCLEO-F303RE: rtos NUCLEO-F303RE: spi_dma
NUCLEO-F303RE: temperature_mcp990x NUCLEO-F334R8: blink
NUCLEO-F401RE: adc_dma NUCLEO-F401RE: blink
NUCLEO-F401RE: distance_vl53l0 NUCLEO-F401RE: timer_register_count
NUCLEO-F411RE: blink NUCLEO-F411RE: imu_bno055
NUCLEO-F411RE: radio/nrf24-basic-comm NUCLEO-F411RE: radio/nrf24-data
NUCLEO-F411RE: radio/nrf24-phy-test NUCLEO-F411RE: radio/nrf24-scanner
NUCLEO-F411RE: rtos NUCLEO-F411RE: sx1276_rx
NUCLEO-F411RE: sx1276_tx NUCLEO-F411RE: ws2812b
NUCLEO-F429ZI: adc_ads816x NUCLEO-F429ZI: blink
NUCLEO-F429ZI: cmsis_dsp/bayes NUCLEO-F429ZI: cmsis_dsp/class_marks
NUCLEO-F429ZI: cmsis_dsp/convolution NUCLEO-F429ZI: cmsis_dsp/dotproduct
NUCLEO-F429ZI: cmsis_dsp/fft_bin NUCLEO-F429ZI: cmsis_dsp/fir
NUCLEO-F429ZI: cmsis_dsp/graphic_equalizer NUCLEO-F429ZI: cmsis_dsp/linear_interp
NUCLEO-F429ZI: cmsis_dsp/matrix NUCLEO-F429ZI: cmsis_dsp/signal_converge
NUCLEO-F429ZI: cmsis_dsp/sin_cos NUCLEO-F429ZI: cmsis_dsp/svm
NUCLEO-F429ZI: cmsis_dsp/variance NUCLEO-F429ZI: ethernet
NUCLEO-F429ZI: freertos_static NUCLEO-F429ZI: imu_adis16470
NUCLEO-F429ZI: nanopb NUCLEO-F429ZI: pat9125el
NUCLEO-F429ZI: rtc_mcp7941x NUCLEO-F429ZI: spi_flash
NUCLEO-F429ZI: spi_flash_fatfs NUCLEO-F429ZI: spistack_flash
NUCLEO-F429ZI: usb_freertos NUCLEO-F429ZI: usbfatfs
NUCLEO-F439ZI: blink NUCLEO-F439ZI: spi_dma
NUCLEO-F446RE: blink NUCLEO-F446RE: color
NUCLEO-F446RE: flash NUCLEO-F446ZE: blink
NUCLEO-F446ZE: dac_basic NUCLEO-F446ZE: dac_dma
NUCLEO-F446ZE: usbserial NUCLEO-F746ZG: blink
NUCLEO-F767ZI: blink NUCLEO-F767ZI: ethernet
NUCLEO-F767ZI: freertos_blink NUCLEO-F767ZI: spi_dma
NUCLEO-G070RB: adc_dma NUCLEO-G070RB: blink
NUCLEO-G071RB: adc NUCLEO-G071RB: amnb
NUCLEO-G071RB: apa102 NUCLEO-G071RB: blink
NUCLEO-G071RB: custom_allocator NUCLEO-G071RB: flash
NUCLEO-G071RB: matrix NUCLEO-G071RB: rtos
NUCLEO-G431KB: blink NUCLEO-G431KB: flash
NUCLEO-G431RB: blink NUCLEO-G431RB: flash
NUCLEO-G474RE: adc_basic NUCLEO-G474RE: adc_sequence_dma
NUCLEO-G474RE: ads101x NUCLEO-G474RE: ads7828
NUCLEO-G474RE: as5047 NUCLEO-G474RE: blink
NUCLEO-G474RE: can NUCLEO-G474RE: dac_basic
NUCLEO-G474RE: dac_dma NUCLEO-G474RE: fdcan
NUCLEO-G474RE: flash NUCLEO-G474RE: flash_json
NUCLEO-G474RE: imu_lsm6dso NUCLEO-G474RE: ixm42xxx
NUCLEO-G474RE: ixm42xxx_fifo NUCLEO-G474RE: max31855
NUCLEO-G474RE: ms5611 NUCLEO-G474RE: servo_pwm
NUCLEO-G474RE: sx128x_lora NUCLEO-G474RE: timer_input_capture
NUCLEO-H723ZG: adc_injected_conversion NUCLEO-H723ZG: adc_simple
NUCLEO-H723ZG: blink NUCLEO-H723ZG: bmi088/i2c
NUCLEO-H723ZG: bmi088/spi NUCLEO-H723ZG: dac_dma
NUCLEO-H743ZI: blink NUCLEO-L031K6: blink
NUCLEO-L031K6: vector_table_ram NUCLEO-L053R8: blink
NUCLEO-L152RE: blink NUCLEO-L432KC: blink
NUCLEO-L432KC: comp NUCLEO-L432KC: gyroscope
NUCLEO-L432KC: pwm NUCLEO-L432KC: pwm_advanced
NUCLEO-L432KC: spi_dma NUCLEO-L432KC: uart_spi
NUCLEO-L452RE: blink NUCLEO-L452RE: graphics_touch
NUCLEO-L452RE: lvgl NUCLEO-L476RG: adc
NUCLEO-L476RG: blink NUCLEO-L476RG: dac_dma
NUCLEO-L476RG: i2c_test NUCLEO-L476RG: itm
NUCLEO-L476RG: rtt NUCLEO-L496ZG-P: blink
NUCLEO-L552ZE-Q: adc_basic NUCLEO-L552ZE-Q: blink
NUCLEO-L552ZE-Q: dac_dma NUCLEO-L552ZE-Q: freertos_blink
NUCLEO-U575ZI-Q: blink NUCLEO-U575ZI-Q: fiber_overflow
OLIMEXINO-STM32: blink Raspberry Pi Pico: adc_simple
Raspberry Pi Pico: blink Raspberry Pi Pico: fiber
Raspberry Pi Pico: interrupt Raspberry Pi Pico: logger
Raspberry Pi Pico: mcblink Raspberry Pi Pico: mclogger
Raspberry Pi Pico: rtc_mcp7941x Raspberry Pi Pico: spi_dma
Raspberry Pi Pico: st7789 SAMD21-XPLAINED-PRO: blink
SAMD21-XPLAINED-PRO: usbserial SAMD: blink
SAMD: interrupt SAMD: usbserial
SAME54-XPLAINED-PRO: blink SAME54-XPLAINED-PRO: usbserial
SAME70-XPLAINED: adc SAME70-XPLAINED: blink
SAME70-XPLAINED: pwm SAME70-XPLAINED: timer
SAMG55-XPLAINED-PRO: adc-uart SAMG55-XPLAINED-PRO: blink
SAMG55-XPLAINED-PRO: spi-loopback SAMG55-XPLAINED-PRO: timer
SAMG55-XPLAINED-PRO: usbserial SAMV71-XPLAINED-ULTRA: adc/dma
SAMV71-XPLAINED-ULTRA: adc/multi-channel SAMV71-XPLAINED-ULTRA: adc/simple
SAMV71-XPLAINED-ULTRA: blink SAMV71-XPLAINED-ULTRA: dac
SAMV71-XPLAINED-ULTRA: dma/block_transfer SAMV71-XPLAINED-ULTRA: dma/linked_list_transfer
SAMV71-XPLAINED-ULTRA: fdcan SAMV71-XPLAINED-ULTRA: i2c-eeprom/at24mac402
SAMV71-XPLAINED-ULTRA: i2c-eeprom/generic SAMV71-XPLAINED-ULTRA: mcp3008
SAMV71-XPLAINED-ULTRA: pwm SAMV71-XPLAINED-ULTRA: timer
SAMV: blink STM32-F4VE: flash
STM32-F4VE: gui STM32F0-DISCOVERY: blink
STM32F0-DISCOVERY: logger STM32F030F4P6-DEMO-BOARD: adc
STM32F030F4P6-DEMO-BOARD: blink STM32F072-DISCOVERY: blink
STM32F072-DISCOVERY: can STM32F072-DISCOVERY: hard_fault
STM32F072-DISCOVERY: rotation STM32F072-DISCOVERY: stusb4500
STM32F072-DISCOVERY: tmp102 STM32F072-DISCOVERY: uart
STM32F072-DISCOVERY: unaligned_access STM32F1-DISCOVERY: blink
STM32F1-DISCOVERY: logger STM32F3-DISCOVERY: accelerometer
STM32F3-DISCOVERY: adc/continous STM32F3-DISCOVERY: adc/interrupt
STM32F3-DISCOVERY: adc/simple STM32F3-DISCOVERY: blink
STM32F3-DISCOVERY: can STM32F3-DISCOVERY: comp
STM32F3-DISCOVERY: ft245 STM32F3-DISCOVERY: gdb
STM32F3-DISCOVERY: rotation STM32F3-DISCOVERY: rtt
STM32F3-DISCOVERY: timer/basic STM32F3-DISCOVERY: uart/hal
STM32F3-DISCOVERY: uart/logger STM32F3-DISCOVERY: usb_dfu
STM32F4-DISCOVERY: accelerometer STM32F4-DISCOVERY: adc/interrupt
STM32F4-DISCOVERY: adc/oversample STM32F4-DISCOVERY: adc/simple
STM32F4-DISCOVERY: app_uart_sniffer STM32F4-DISCOVERY: barometer_bmp085_bmp180
STM32F4-DISCOVERY: blink STM32F4-DISCOVERY: can
STM32F4-DISCOVERY: can2 STM32F4-DISCOVERY: colour_tcs3414
STM32F4-DISCOVERY: display/hd44780 STM32F4-DISCOVERY: display/nokia_5110
STM32F4-DISCOVERY: display/ssd1306 STM32F4-DISCOVERY: distance_vl6180
STM32F4-DISCOVERY: encoder_output STM32F4-DISCOVERY: exti
STM32F4-DISCOVERY: fpu STM32F4-DISCOVERY: fsmc
STM32F4-DISCOVERY: led_matrix_display STM32F4-DISCOVERY: open407v-d/gui
STM32F4-DISCOVERY: open407v-d/touchscreen STM32F4-DISCOVERY: pressure_ams5915
STM32F4-DISCOVERY: protothreads STM32F4-DISCOVERY: sab2
STM32F4-DISCOVERY: spi STM32F4-DISCOVERY: temperature_ltc2984
STM32F4-DISCOVERY: timer STM32F4-DISCOVERY: timer_test
STM32F4-DISCOVERY: uart STM32F4-DISCOVERY: uart_spi
STM32F401-DISCOVERY: accelerometer STM32F401-DISCOVERY: blink
STM32F401-DISCOVERY: gyroscope STM32F401-DISCOVERY: uart
STM32F407VET6-DEVEBOX: blinky STM32F407VET6-DEVEBOX: flash
STM32F407VET6-DEVEBOX: logger STM32F429-DISCOVERY: blink
STM32F469-DISCOVERY: assert STM32F469-DISCOVERY: blink
STM32F469-DISCOVERY: can STM32F469-DISCOVERY: display
STM32F469-DISCOVERY: exceptions_rtti STM32F469-DISCOVERY: game_of_life
STM32F469-DISCOVERY: hard_fault STM32F469-DISCOVERY: lvgl
STM32F469-DISCOVERY: max31865 STM32F469-DISCOVERY: ports
STM32F469-DISCOVERY: printf STM32F469-DISCOVERY: threadsafe_statics
STM32F469-DISCOVERY: tlsf-allocator STM32F469-DISCOVERY: touchscreen
STM32F746G-DISCOVERY: adc_ad7928 STM32F746G-DISCOVERY: blink
STM32F746G-DISCOVERY: rtos STM32F746G-DISCOVERY: tmp102
STM32F769I-DISCOVERY: blink STM32F769I-DISCOVERY: dac_dma
STM32H750VBT6-DEVEBOX: blink STM32L1-DISCOVERY: blink
STM32L476-DISCOVERY: blink Smart Response XE: blink
Smart Response XE: display THINGPLUS-RP2040: blink