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These module docs are in beta and may be incomplete.

modm:architecture:register: General Purpose Registers

Data structures to provide a native register abstraction.

These data structures are used to describe the relationship of single bits, bit groups and bit configurations in registers with type-safe access.

Registers can be made up of three things:

  • Bits: a single bit (position N),
  • Configurations: a combination of bits where the meaning does not correspond to its numeric value (position [N, M])
  • Values: a numeric value (position [N, M])

Example of an 8-bit register called Control

   7    6    5      4      3      2      1    0
| EN | FS | PRE1 | PRE0 | DEL2 | DEL1 | DEL0 | |
  • Bit 7: Enable
  • Bit 6: Full Scale
  • Configuration [5, 4]: Prescaler
    • 00: Divide by 1
    • 01: Divide by 2
    • 10: Divide by 4
    • 11: Divide by 8
  • Value [3, 1]: Start-Up Delay in ms

Register Bits

The bits can be modelled using strongly-typed enums and the Flags template class as follows:

enum class
Control : uint8_t
    EN = Bit7,  ///< bit documentation
    FS = Bit6,

    PRE1 = Bit5,
    PRE0 = Bit4,

    DEL2 = Bit3,
    DEL1 = Bit2,
    DEL0 = Bit1,
// expands to
// typedef modm::Flags8< Control >  Control_t;
// and some enum operator overloading magic

You can handle all its register bits as you would expect:

Control_t control = Control::EN;
control = Control::EN | Control::FS;
control &= ~Control::FS;
control |= Control::FS;
control ^= Control::PRE1;
bool isSet = control & Control::FS;

control.reset(Control::PRE1 | Control::PRE0);

bool noneSet = control.none(Control::PRE1 | Control::PRE0);
bool allSet = control.all(Control::EN | Control::FS);

You still get raw access if you really need it:

uint8_t raw = control.value; // the underlying type
control.value = 0x24;

The access is type-safe, you cannot use bits from two different registers:

enum class Control2 : uint8_t
    DIS = Bit4,
    HS = Bit3,

auto control = Control::EN | Control2::HS; // compile error

You can even overload functions on argument type now:

void write(Control_t control);
void write(Control2_t control);

write(Control::EN | Control::FS);  // calls #1
write(Control2::DIS);              // calls #2

Register Configurations

Configurations are also described as a strongly-typed enum and then wrapped into the Configuration template class.

enum class
Prescaler : uint8_t
    Div1 = 0,               ///< configuration documentation
    Div2 = int(Control::PRE0),
    Div4 = int(Control::PRE1),
    Div8 = int(Control::PRE1) | int(Control::PRE0),
typedef Configuration< Control_t, Prescaler, (Bit5 | Bit4) >  Prescaler_t;

The Prescaler enum values are already shifted in this example (hence the (Bit5 | Bit4) mask), however you can also declare the prescaler values non-shifted and let the wrapper shift it:

enum class Prescaler : uint8_t
    Div1 = 0,
    Div2 = 1,
    Div4 = 2,
    Div8 = 3,
typedef Configuration<Control_t, Prescaler, 0b11, 4> Prescaler_t;

Why? If you have two or more configurations with the same selections in the same register, you can simply add another one:

typedef Configuration< Control_t, Prescaler, 0b11, 6 >  Prescaler2_t;

Configurations can be used inline:

Control_t control = Control::EN | Prescaler_t(Prescaler::Div2);
Control_t control &= ~Prescaler_t::mask();

But do not have to:

Prescaler_t::set(control, Prescaler::Div2);
Prescaler prescaler = Prescaler_t::get(control);

Register Values

Values are described using the Value template class which masks and shifts the value as required. In our example the value has a width of 3 bits and needs to be shifted 1 bit:

typedef Value< Control_t, 3, 1 >  Delay_t;

This can be used the same way as the Configuration:

Control_t control = Control::EN | Prescaler_t(Prescaler::Div2) | Delay_t(4);
Control_t control &= ~Delay_t::mask();

Delay_t::set(control, 7);
uint8_t delay = Delay_t::get(control);

See Typesafe Register Access in C++ for a more detailed background on this implementation.


// Struct
struct modm::Configuration< typename Parent , typename Enum , typename Parent::UnderlyingType Mask, typename Parent::UnderlyingType Position=0 >;
struct modm::Flags< typename Enum , typename T  >;
struct modm::FlagsGroup< T... >;
struct modm::FlagsOperators< typename Enum, typename T >;
struct modm::Register< typename T >;
struct modm::Value< typename Parent , typename Parent::UnderlyingType Width, typename Parent::UnderlyingType Position=0 >;
// Typedef
using modm::Flags16 = typedef Flags<Enum, uint16_t>;
using modm::Flags32 = typedef Flags<Enum, uint32_t>;
using modm::Flags8 = typedef Flags<Enum, uint8_t>;
using modm::Register16 = typedef Register<uint16_t>;
using modm::Register32 = typedef Register<uint32_t>;
using modm::Register8 = typedef Register<uint8_t>;
// Define
#define MODM_FLAGS16(Enum)
#define MODM_FLAGS32(Enum)
#define MODM_FLAGS8(Enum)
#define MODM_TYPE_FLAGS(Parent)


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